1 Acetyl cholinesterase inhibitors. Inhibition of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, interrupting the transmission of nerve impulses
2 GABA-gated chloride channel antagonists: Interferes with GABA receptors of insect neurons, leading to repetitive nervous discharges
3 Sodium channel modulators: Acts as an axonic poison by interfering with the sodium channels of both the peripheral and central nervous system stimulating repetitive nervous discharges, leading to paralysis.
4 Acetylcholine receptor agonists/antagonists: Binds to nicotinic acetylcholine receptor disrupting nerve transmission.
5 Nicotine acetylcholine receptor agonists (not group 4)
6 Chloride Channel Activators: Interferes with the GABA nerve receptor of insects.
7 Juvenile hormone mimics (Insect growth regulator): Mimic juvenile hormones, which prevent molting from the larval to the adult stage.
9 Compounds of unknown or non-specific mode of action (selective feeding blockers)
10 Compounds of unknown or non-specific target site of action (mite growth inhibitors)
11 Microbial disruptors of insect midgut membranes
12 Inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation at the site of dinitrophenol uncoupling (Disrupt ATP formation)
13 Uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation (disrupt H proton gradient formation).
15 Inhibit chitin biosynthesis – type 0, Lepidopteran
16 Inhibit chitin biosynthesis – type 1, Homopteran
17 Molting disruptor, Dipteran
18 Ecdysone agonists/molting disruptors
20 Coupling site II electron transport inhibitors (Complex III)
21 Site I electron transport inhibitor
23 Inhibitors of lipid biosynthesis
25 Neuronal inhibitors (unknown mode of action)
This list is from the U.S Environmental Protection Agency, in cooperation with the Insecticide Resistance Action Committee (IRAC). IRAC is a technical working group within the Global Crop Protection Federation (GCPF). More information on the Insecticide Resistance Action Committee and the Mode of Action Classification is available from: www.irac-online.org.